Corruption is an issue which adversely affects India’s economy of central, state and local government agencies. Not only has it held the economy back from reaching new heights, but rampant corruption has stunted the country’s development.In a study conducted in 2008, Transparency International reported that about 50% of Indians had firsthand experience of paying bribes or using contacts to get services performed by public offices.
The largest contributors to corruption are entitlement programs and social spending schemes enacted by the Indian government. Examples include the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and the National Rural Health Mission. Other areas of corruption include India’s trucking industry which is forced to pay billions of rupees in bribes annually to numerous regulatory and police stops on interstate highways.
Effects Of Corruption
Corruption has been spread like a disease all over the India as well as abroad. It has become one of the most speedily increasing social issues in the Indian Society. It is generally initiated and promoted by the opportunistic leaders. They never think about the nation’s benefits and do lots of damage to the nation through their corruption even for their small advantage. They sell their country properties in the wrong hands and spread wrong beliefs about India in the people’s mind living in other countries.
They are spoiling the old traditions and cultures of India for their personal benefits. Nowadays people who are working in right direction using right principles considered as foolish in modern society and the people who are working wrong and making wrong promises are good for society. However, in turn,it is true that corrupted people cheating the simple, ordinary and innocent people. They are ruling the mind of innocent people.
Causes of Corruption
The causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations, complicated tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly of government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant variations in the level of corruption and in the government’s efforts to reduce corruption across different areas of India.
- The greed of money, power, Luxury or any other materialistic desires.
- Higher levels of market and political monopolization
- Low levels of democracy, weak civil participation, and low political transparency
- Higher levels of bureaucracy and inefficient administrative structures
- Low press freedom
- Low economic freedom
- Large ethnic divisions and high levels of in-group favoritism
- Gender inequality
- Resource Wealth
- Political instability
- Weak property rights
- Contagion from corrupt neighboring countries
- Low levels of education
- Low Internet access
- Lack of commitment to society.
Places OF Corruption
Corruption is everywhere in every department whether it hospitals, education, job, government offices, nothing is left of corruption. Everything has become a business and the source of earning money in wrong way. Educational institutions are also involved in the corruption and they give seat to those students only who have paid for, whether they are good students with good marks or not. Very weak students are given admission in the top colleges and universities only on the basis of money paid for wrong admission and the topper student with good marks and lack of money gets back in the life or take admission in any simple college.
Nowadays, private sectors companies are so good in comparison to the governmental jobs. Private companies are giving job on the basis of candidate’s skills, ability, technical knowledge, good percentage of marks and all the educational records. However, it has become tough to get job in the government offices as they need lots of bribes to give any type of job (high level or low level) like teaching, clerk, babu, nurse, doctor, sweeper, etc. And the number of bribe increases in the market as the level of job increase like IAS, PCC, police, etc ranks jobs.
Many of the biggest scandals since 2010 have involved high level government officials, including Cabinet Ministers and Chief Ministers, such as the 2010 Commonwealth Games Scam (₹70,000 crore (US$10 billion)), the Aadarsh Housing Society Camp, the Coal Mining Scam (₹1.86 lakh crore (US$27 billion)), the Mining Scam in Karnataka and the Cash For Vote Scams.
A 2005 study done by the Transparency International in India found that more than 92% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribes or peddling influence to get services performed in a public office. Taxes and bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International estimates that truckers annually pay ₹222 crore (US$32 million) in bribes.
Both government regulators and police share in bribe money, to the tune of 43% and 45% each, respectively. The en route stoppages at checkpoints and entry-points can take up to 11 hours per day.
Black money refers to money that is not fully or legitimately the property of the ‘owner’. A Government White Paper on black money in India suggests two possible sources of black money in India; the first includes activities not permitted by the law, such as crime, drug trade, terrorism and corruption, all of which are illegal in India and secondly, wealth that may have been generated through lawful activity but accumulated by failure to declare income and pay taxes. Some of these black money ends up in illicit financial flows across international borders, such as deposits in tax haven countries.
Right to Information Act
The 2005 Right To Information Act required government officials to provide information requested by citizens or face punitive action, as well as the computerization of services and the establishment of vigilance commissions. This considerably reduced corruption and opened up avenues to redress grievances.
Right to public services legislation
Right to Public Services legislation, which has been enacted in 19 states of India, guarantee time-bound delivery of services for various public Services rendered by the government to citizen and provides mechanisms for punishing the errant public servant who is deficient in providing the service stipulated under the statute. Right to Service legislation is meant to reduce corruption among the government officials and to increase transparency and public accountability.
Anti-corruption laws in India
Public servants in India can be imprisoned for several years and penalized for corruption under the:
- Indian Penal Code, 1860
- Prosecution Section Of Income Tax Act, 1961
- The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1981
- The Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 to prohibit benami transactions.
- Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002
- Punishment for bribery in India can range from six months to seven years of imprisonment.